The Cerrado biome is compared to that of a savannah. It presents, however, several types of vegetation, distributed in kind of savannas, meadows, and forests. The rainfall varies from 800 to 2000mm, and the temperatures from 18 to 28 ° C, with a strong dry period from April to September. The forest cover of Cerrado represents 13% of the Brazilian territory.
Fires play an important role in the structuring of this biome, which becomes very dry during the dry season, from May to September. It is more of Brazil’s most endangered biome, being nibbled by crops and cities that spread.
Located between the Amazon, Atlantic Forests and Pantanal, the Cerrado is the largest savanna region in South America.
Lurking among the arid grasslands and shrubbery one finds such large mammals as the jaguar (Panthera onca), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus) and marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus).
Taking shelter in many of the region’s characteristic twisted and gnarled trees are hundreds of bird species, like the red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata), the critically endangered Spix’s macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), and many more.
There are also over 10,000 species of plants, almost half of which are found nowhere else in the world.
A desperado cerrado
The Cerrado is one of the most threatened and over-exploited regions in Brazil, second only to the Atlantic Forests in vegetation loss and deforestation.
Unsustainable agricultural activities, particularly soy production and cattle ranching, as well as burning of vegetation for charcoal, continue to pose a major threat to the Cerrado’s biodiversity.
Despite its environmental importance, it is one of the least protected regions in Brazil.
The forests of Cerrado are of several types.
The most widespread is the “dry” forest. The trees have an average height of between 15 to 25m. Almost all of them lose their leaves during the dry season (deciduous), which prevents the presence of epiphytic plants but allows the growth of a more or less dense shrub layer. Many of the vegetative species encountered have thorns where they are stinging.
The Cerrado rainforest in Brazil is not nearly as known as Amazon, but is at least as threatened, mainly from cattle farming and conversion of forests to soy plantations. If the current deforestation continues, much of the savannah and forest of Cerrados will be lost in 2030.
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