There are ten (10) tasks, one for each week: the tasks are detailed below. There is a table to complete for each task. Please fill in the information required.
Note: Each resource summary should be around 200-300 words.
The text discusses how modern CPUs function. Recently a critical flaw in microprocessor design has been discovered that allows two extremely serious security exploits: Spectre and Meltdown. Find and summarise ONE resource that describes how either of these exploits work. The resource (and your summary) should focus on what is occurring in the CPU that allows these exploits to occur.
Title: How The Spectre/Meltdown Vulnerabilities Work Reference:How The Spectre/Meltdown Vulnerabilities Work | Check Point Blog. (2018, January 11). Retrieved on 16th May 2017. From https://blog.checkpoint.com/2018/01/08/spectre-meltdown-vulnerabilities-work/
Summary:This resource provides an explanation about the various aspects in the memory that makes it vulnerable to attacks, the meltdown is briefly explained how it works and some of the remediation work that can be employed to protect from these vulnerabilities. In this resource some of the memories which have severe vulnerability include AMD, ARM and Intel processors. Among the reasons for picking this recourse is due to proper elaboration of the meltdown such that even the computer illiterate can simply grasp what is going on.
The present processors are very fast compared to inputs and memory. Hence, this is one of the exploit the CPUs use to make the processes run faster because computer executions have already been carried out beforehand. This phenomenon is referred to as speculative execution or out-of-order execution. The meltdown exploits this by inserting a line or lines or instructions in a program, whereby tthese rogue lines will capture the data from the protected memory. When the CPU reaches at these lines it check whether they have permission to fetch data from the protected memory. When the CPU finds out there is no permission it executes exemption and the program stops. At this point no data is yet leaked and all is safe. Now, when a program is rerun that requests this data or information, it will be readily puked by computer because this information is already in cache which is unprotected by physical memory.
The above description provide an insight about what happen inside the computer processors t make them vulnerable to meltdown and spectre. Also, this resource has provided to me the reasons for providing security to the recent processors.
Prior to 1985, there were very fewOperating Systems (OSes) that used Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs). Find and summarise ONE resource that describes ONE of these GUI operating systems. The OS must have been release prior to 1985 so cannot be Microsoft Windows.
Title:Apple Lisa Office System 3.1
Reference:ToastTech. Lisa Office System 3.1. Retrieved on 16th May 2017. From http://toastytech.com/guis/lisaos3.html
This resource provides information about Lisa Office System 1 that was among first OSes to be developed. This time Microsoft OSes were far away dreams. The reason for selecting this resource is because it has provided information in such a way that they are accompanied by pictures, therefore, making it easy to understand. The Apple Lisa Office System was developed by Apple Computer and released in the market in 1983. At this time the main competitors of this operating system were Perq and Xerox star. This Apple’s OS was very advance because at this time it had advanced graphical interface unlike any other at the time. This operating system was combined with other components manufactured by Apple to create a fully functional computer. Some components which were manufactured include lisa hardware, office applications, operating system and powerful document processing workstation.
This Operating System did not last long because it was replaced by powerful Macintosh Operation system and some of the difference between the two are; Macintosh added slots for micro disks while Lisa Office system had only twiggy disks, the Lisa 1 OS had a waste basket referred to as wastebasket but it was later renamed a trash in Macintosh. Also, unlike in Lisa 1 where the menus were distributed in the desktop, in the Macintosh these menu were added in the menu bar to make switching to different documents easier. Lisa1 lacked LisaTerminal that was added in the subsequent OS and lastly view and desk was changed to housekeeping in Macintosh.
Lisa 1 used icons to represent objects of the system and these icons appeared in the desktop or in a designated folder. Some of the common icons which could be identified on the desktop include clipboard, preferences, clock, trash and disk icons. In this OS, files were sized or measured in terms of blocks but not like the current case where they are measured in terms of bytes. This measurement was used because files were added in terms of blocks.
Lastly, this office had an interesting feature at this time which was protecting the documents by passwords.
This document has provided the early features of Lisa Office System 1, which was among the most advanced OS at the time. With this wealth of history one can appreciate the far computer development has undergone.
Low-Powered Wide-Area Networks (LPWANs) are wireless communication networks that are characterised by linking devices over large distances. Devices (including simple sensors) typically can only communicate at very low bit rates, however, the communication and associated electronics consume very little power. As such, LPWAN devices can be battery powered and operateindependently for many months or even years. Find and summarise ONE resource that describes ONE platform or technology that implements a LPWAN.
Title: LoRa Technology
Reference: Semtech. What is LoRa Radio Network | IoT Technology, Examples, FAQ | Semtech. Retrieved on 16th May 2017. From https://www.semtech.com/technology/lora/what-is-lora
The resource is about various aspects of LoRa including features, alliances and benefits. However, this summary has only dealt with features of Lora. The main reason for picking this resource is because content is well organised an logical.
Some of the LoRa technology key features that are used to implement LPWAN protocol are as follows. The first feature is on geolocation in that it allows GPS-free as well as low power tracking applications. The second feature is on low cost both in implementation and operations. Third feature is on standardisation such that there is interoperability of various nodes and gateways. Fourth is low power consumption such that one node can run on same battery for years. It also has long range data transmission. A single base station is capable of penetrating deep in the buildings, forest and connection of rural areas up 30 kilometres. Another feature is that it provide security to the data during transmission and finally LoRa facilitates high capacity transmission of data. In this case one base station is able to handle millions of communications per second.
The features of LoRa provided in this resource has expounded on what LoRa really is and their capabilities. From this articleis can be concluded that the next big application of wireless networks will consider LoRa for among other things security and low power consumption.
Voice over IP (VoIP) is a group of hardware and software technologies that allow users to communicate via voice and video over the Internet. VoIP uses a number of different software protocols, depending on the application. Find and summarise ONE resource that describes ONE of these VoIP protocols.
Title: Differentiated Services (diffserv)
Reference: Carpenter, B., ; Nichols, K. Differentiated Services (diffserv) -. Retrieved on 16th May 2017. From https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/diffserv/about/
This resource is about the differentiated service of internet protocol. The resource has provided very reliable information in understanding about this protocol. The development of differentiated service arose because of the need to provide simple, coarse and differentiated classes of service to the internet. This majorly being driven by the need to support various types of applications and to meet specific business requirements. The protocol employs a small yet well defined building blocks which are from where aggregate behaviours are built. Packets carrying bit-patterns are used to enforce forward treatment at each network node. This is mostly required in inter-domain use, multi-vendor interoperability. According to this group some of the services which will not be provided due to security issues include: working on mechanism for the identification of individual traffic movements, definition of end to end services, support of new signalling mechanism and agreement of services.
This resource is very useful in understanding how Working Group implements and wishes to implement various differentiated services to the internet users. Also, a good description of how information pertaining to differentiated services is provided.
One of the many uses of cryptography has been the development of the blockchain. Blockchains are commonly used as the basis for maintaining the data integrity of crypto currencies, though have many, many more applications. Find and summarise ONE resource that describes how blockchains work. Note that the resource should focus on the blockchain mechanism, NOT crypto currencies.
Title: What is blockchain and how does it work?
Reference: Hassell, J. (2016, April 14). What is blockchain and how does it work?. Retrieved on 16th May 2017. From https://www.cio.com/article/3055847/security/what-is-blockchain-and-how-does-it-work.html
This resource describes definition of block chain, the working mechanism of blockchain, benefits of implementing this technology, disadvantages of blockchains and finally brief description of hyperledger. However, the summary has only focused on working mechanism of blockchain. The information is thoroughly useful and detailed.According to the author Hassell (2016), blockchain is a technology which is mostly used to record signed transactions in a shared distributed ledger to ensure that they are credible and authentic. This blockchain technology is the technology behind the most famous world virtual currencies such as bitcoin, ethereium and litecoin. This technology is about to make even bigger penetration in other industries to uphold trust and reduce corruption in transactions.
Blockchain technology works in steps and the overall steps are five of them. The first step is step is initiating a transaction. After initiating a transaction, that transaction is sent to majority of nodes for verification of history. In this case, most of the nodes must come into consensus that the transaction has originated from a valid source. After verification the transaction is signed by the act of hashing and finally added to the ledger. What makes this process unique is the ability of distribute the ledger without the need for central storage of data. This distributed ledge stores similar blocks like all the others and therefore makes it very hard to hack the system.
This resource has been helpful because it has provided a clear method of how the blockchain works. In a different section it has provided the benefits and shortcoming of this distributed ledger, however, the benefits outweighs the drawbacks.
One controversial practical application of network traffic management is in the contravention of the principle of “net neutrality”. Find and summarise ONE resource that describes what net neutrality is and how its contravention could impact on individual and business users of the Internet.
Title: Here’s how people who depend on the internet for their income are dealing with the net neutrality repeal
Reference: Berger, S. (2016, April 1). How people who depend on the internet for their income are dealing with the net neutrality repeal. Retrieved on 16th May 2017. From https://www.cnbc.com/2017/12/26/how-the-net-neutrality-repeal-could-affect-online-business-owners.html
This resource is about internet been stolen from the users i.e. not being readily available for use to everyone and the repercussion of it. The resource has well analysed the issues with examples about what is happening now and what will happen in the future if worst case scenario come into effect. According to the author net neutrality is freedom of usage of internet without discriminating anybody in accessing it. There are many drawbacks which will be experienced by net users either large or small on the contravention of net neutrality principle. Among these challenges which will be experienced is killing and frustrating innovation on the internet. It is clear some of the biggest innovation on the internet has been realised during this time of free internet connectivity. For instance, social media companies, crowdfunding, e-commerce and sharing economy. Most of these companies have been developed base on backbone of free internet. Therefore, repealing the law of net neutrality will slow the momentum of innovation, which should not be the case.
The other drawback is on unfair competition. The advent of net neutrality will mean that small business with little resources and lack of convenience will lose greatly to large companies to big companies which are well endowed. For instance a small business which has not managed to pay the requisite premiums will see its sites loading slowly and thereby users will get frustrated and move to faster sites that are owned by big companies. In this regard in the use of the internet completion will be unfair. Some of the people who can easily be affected by this law in this case are bloggers, business start-ups and freelancers.
This resource has opened up a new perspective in seeing what actually will happen to every internet user around the world because most of the internet host are located in the US. The rest of the countries will be affected in one way or the other. For sure, internet users have to be prepared for better as well as for the worse.
Information Systems have led to greater and greater degrees of automation in the workplace. There is currently extensive speculation on which jobs will cease to be performed by humans in the near future. Find and summarise ONE resource that discusses jobs that are likely to not exist in the future due to ICT based automation. Note that the resource must clearly link the loss of the job(s) to advances in ICT
Title: 5 Jobs Being Replaced by Robots
Reference: Akins, C. 5 Jobs Being Replaced by Robots. Retrieved on 16th May 2017. From http://excelle.monster.com/benefits/articles/4983-5-jobs-being-replaced-by-robots
People will lose jobs mostly to computer and robots because of their cost effectiveness and efficiency. The resource has listed some of the jobs which will likely be automated.People say technology is good in many instances, however, taking people’s livelihood is not one of them. The technology, especially advancement in ICT and robotics has accelerated the process of replacing jobs of people. Some of the jobs that are at high risk of being taken by computers or robots are as provided in the section below.
The first job which is at highest risk of being automated is that of cashier or a checker. By using these robots in stores it is very easy to see lines are moving a bit faster than the usual lines serviced by humans. The technology behind their advancement is that of cognitive knowledge and AI. The second job is that of phone operator. The automated phone operators are so effective such that business owners are finding it hard to resist them. These machine are able to recognise one voice based on past conversation using the technology of machine learning. Most of these services are mostly used filter the conversation you want to have and then direct you to the right person. The third job which is likely to be automated is that of sales people. This job will be lost because many people are opting to trade online thereby eliminating the needs of sales people at the grocery stores. The people who will be replaced in these areas are people who will read an order of a customer and package it accordingly for delivery.
This resource has provided a good explanation how some of the jobs will be lost to computers. Additionally, it has also indicated the jobs which are likely to be created by advancement in computer jobs.
With the advent of mass data collection and storage has come the use of these datasets for machine learning. Find and summarise ONE resource that describes what machine learning is and how it is being used.
Title: The Top 10 AI And Machine Learning Use Cases Everyone Should Know About
Reference: Marr, B. (2016, September 30). The Top 10 AI And Machine Learning Use Cases Everyone Should Know About. Retrieved on 16th May 2017. From https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2016/09/30/what-are-the-top-10-use-cases-for-machine-learning-and-ai/#12d26cde94c9
The resource is about various uses of machine learning in the day-to-day activities and the application theory behind it. The resource has good readability. Machine learning is the process through which a predesigned algorithm is trained using data, and hence establish relationships or formula between independent and dependent results. One of the major task that machine learning performs is pattern identification even in the situation where they are small to be realised or easily overlooked by humans. The following are some of the uses of the machine learning.
Machine learning has found wide application in the data security docket. In this field machine learning is able to identify the malicious codes in a malware. Hence, good for detecting a malware in the computer before it damages the computer. In another case on data security, the machine learning algorithm can learn how cloud accounts are accessed, therefore, it will report any changes different from the identified and hence report data theft.
The second application area is the personal security such as in stadiums, airports and other venues. In this case, machine learning is able to detect harmful items that human screeners can easily overlook. Machine learning can also be applied in financial trading activities. Here machine learning is able to analyse large amount of data in short period of time to make decision about the stock market. In this case the machine learning employs the probability to determine the direction of stocks. And lastly, in the health care industry machine earning can be able to identify some pattern of a certain decease more quickly than human and therefore, better precautions taken to treat the disease.
This resource has analysed the various uses of machine learning in different real-live fields such as healthcare. Additionally, it has been established that some of the things machine learning uses are identification of certain pattern, applying probability and establishing formulas.
Critical to application development are the languages used to implement the specifications. Find and summarise ONE resource that describes ONE programming language that has been developed since 2008. The resource (and your summary) should include information on the principle uses and features of the language.
Title:Go Programming Language: Key Features
Reference: Irani. (2017, July 7). Go Programming Language: Key Features. Retrieved on 16th May 2017. From https://www.xoriant.com/blog/product-engineering/go-programming-language-key-features.html
This resource mostly talks about the features of Go programming language, however, they have been able to throw one or two principles during their explanation process. The features of the Go programming language are many and varied. However, this section will point some of these features and as well provide a brief explanation of each. The first feature is the binaries. These binaries are developed with all the dependencies built-in, this process eliminates the need for running the program. Therefore, applications can be deployed and necessary updates made quickly. Second is the language design. The language is very simple and quickly understandable. The third feature of this language is powerful standard library, these libraries caters for most components. Fourth is package management. In this case, Go combines the current workflow with open source projects. This language is static typing in that it ensure the variables are converted and compatible with various types. This feature prevents the type mismatch during runtime. The other features which are inherent in this language are concurrency support and testing support.
The major principles of this language is the go routine.
This resource has provided very valuable information about Go programming language. It appeared from its various features that it is the best programming language available out there.
While information systems and technology deliver many benefits to society, they can also result in negative effects and outcomes. One recent controversy, the propagation of fake news and its influence on elections, has been linked to a type of software called a “bot”. Find and summarise ONE resource that describes what bots are and how they can be used for disseminating misinformation and affecting human behaviour.
Title: A taxonomy of politibots, a swelling force in global elections that cannot be ignored.
Reference: DiResta, R., Little, J., Morgan, J., Neudert, L. M., ;Nimmo, B. (2017, November 2). The Bots That Are Changing Politics. Retrieved on 16th May 2017. From https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/mb37k4/twitter-facebook-google-bots-misinformation-changing-politics
This resource is very comprehensive and covers areas such as ways bots are used to publish online content and follow through to ensure intended objective is met.
Bots are algorithm in a computer and especially are used over the internet to performs activities that are known to be carried out by human such as writing a comment on a social media discussion forum, provide a like or dislike and share a post. Different types of bots are used to execute this complex strategy. For instance, some bots are used to publish content that is in line with operation’s objectives. Others, on the other hand are used to disrupt the other side or present chaos and misinformation to thwart discourse. It has been established that bots in the social media works in a complimentary way to meet their goal. Some of the way they are used to achieve their objectives include initiate a conversation or publishing content and then generate new ideas thereby driving the discussion discourse that is in line with their targets. This activities is followed by amplification of the ideas and later these ideas are approved by other bots to ensure that the idea are legitimate and trustworthy. Lastly, other bots are used to send the poisonous comments to those object the ideas presented. By doing this trail of actions, these bots are able to manipulate and influence the behaviour of unsuspecting online users.
This resource has been very useful in providing some of the ways these bots are used to publish online content and ensure that their objective is met by disregarding the comments of the opponents.
MARKING SHEET – DO NOT DELETE
Criteria 0 No Response
<=1 Poor resource selection; resource is too broad or lacks relevance to the task; summary fails to explain what the resource was about; the relevance and/or usefulness of the resource has not been explained.
<=2 Good resource selection; resource is relevant to the task; summary is adequate but may require either more detail or is too long; the relevance and/or usefulness of the resource has been explained to some extent, but needs additional information.
<=3 Excellent resource selection; resource is highly relevant to the task (the resource is probably highly specialised); summary is detailed yet concise; the relevance and usefulness of the resource selection has been clearly explained.
-2-1 Reference/URL provided does not link to resource (and resource cannot be located or determined from details provided) ORReference/URL provided does not relate to the summary (i.e. summary is not of resource content / contains content not contained in the resource)
Resource is generic AND/OR covers multiple technologies/examples rather than focuses on a single technology/example
Resource not referenced correctly/not in Harvard format
Week Marks Awarded
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TOTAL Comments: