Master of Arts: Medical Science-Molecular Medicine
BIOM 500 – B02
THE ROLE OF INFECTIOUS AGENTS IN ONCOGENESIS
September 6, 2018
Context: Oncogenic viruses move their genetic substance to other cells and subsequently stay within the body for an extended period as a latent infection or as a chronic virus. Additionally, oncogenic viruses support cells to replicate at an abnormally quick rate that might damage the genetic content within those cells
Objective: The purpose of this discussion is to outline the role of infectious agents in oncogenesis.
Design: The chapter 6 of the Molecular Basis of Cancer by Mendelsohn et al was examined to obtain information.
Main Outcome and Measures: To present the generalities in regards to the anatomy of the ovaries in a succinct but efficient way.
Results: Cancer had been regularly associated with lifestyle decisions like smoking, an individual’s genetic makeup, and ecological influences. However, there is also a connection between certain kinds of cancers and particular bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. The infections are denoted as oncogenic or tumor-generating infections. Clinical, epidemiological, and biological researches have presented adequate proof that numerous infectious agents are recognized as cancer causes.
Conclusion: Extra factors like smoking or exposure to additional carcinogens along with an individual’s genetic make-up could justify the reason cancer develops in some individuals who have experienced oncogenic infections but not others.
Around 20% of the entire human cancers global have been linked with infectious agents. The percentage is even greater within low-resource nations where because of socioeconomic circumstances, infections are extra widespread and healthcare surveillance is less accessible compared to within high-income nations. The 20% approximate of pathogen-linked cancers could actually be rather low since novel evidence supports the involvement of more infectious agents within human carcinogenesis.1 In the past, cancer had been regularly associated with lifestyle decisions like smoking, an individual’s genetic makeup, and ecological influences. However, research has currently revealed a connection between certain kinds of cancers and particular bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. The infections are denoted as oncogenic or tumor-generating infections. Clinical, epidemiological, and biological researches have presented adequate proof that numerous infectious agents are recognized as cancer causes. Oncogenic viruses move their genetic substance to other cells and subsequently stay within the body for an extended period as a latent infection or as a chronic virus. Another aspect of oncogenic viruses is that they appear to support cells to replicate at an abnormally quick rate that might damage the genetic content within those cells. Extra factors like smoking or exposure to additional carcinogens might be required to trigger the last change of a normal cell into a cancer cell. The exposures together with every individual’s genetic makeup could justify the reason cancer develops in some persons who have experienced oncogenic infections but not others.
SPECIFIC ONCOGENIC INFECTIONS and THE CANCER THEY CAUSE
Human papillomavirus or HPV
HPV or human papillomavirus is a family of over 70 diverse kinds of viruses that have the capacity to generate warts on different areas of the body.1 Several strains on HPV are circulated sexually and lead to genital warts. Warts are little, hard growths on the inner linings of the body that result from a given kind of virus. Sexually transferred HPVs are connected to the development of anal, cervical and penile cancer. HPV is discovered within 90% of cervical cancers situations or cases. Early discovery and management may reduce the threat of cervical cancer and physicians advise females diagnosed with HPV to have regular Pap smears.
Epstein – Barr virus (EBV)
Epstein – Barr virus (EBV) is generally recognized as the infectious agent that causes infectious mononucleosis.1 It is transmitted via contact with fluid from the nose and mouth of an individual who is infected. Kids who contract EBV infrequently have symptoms and if they do, they sign basically are similar to those of regular viral infections. When teenagers or grownups are contaminated with EBV, they may have communicable mononucleosis. EBV stays within the body, principally within the lymphocytes for the rest of the life of a person. This infectious agent is linked principally with the Hodgkin’s sickness and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma development. The two are tumors of the lymphatic system. EBV as well causes nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt’s lymphoma, a rare type of cancer emerging within the lymph nodes.
Hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV)
These kinds of infectious agents mainly affect the liver. The virus is spread through contact with infected blood like through the sharing of needles. Moreover, HBV may be spread through contact with the fluids from the body of an infected individual during a sexual interaction (Mendelsohn et al). Some persons having hepatitis show no signs at all while in others the infection may eventually lead to liver cancer or liver damage from cirrhosis, a condition wherein liver cells die and are substituted using scar tissue. Since HCV and HBV infections normally are chronic, the agents are present within the body for an extended period and may cause considerable damage. While the body attempts to fight the damage, fresh cells are generated at a quicker rate raising the threat of cell mutation and liver tumor. The condition is managed through injections or interferon alpha-2b, a medicine that reinforces the immune system to battle the virus.
Human lymphotrophic virus type 1
This is a kind of infectious agent that has been associated with the development of a given kind of lymphoma and leukemia. Infections with the agent frequently happen at birth although it may stay inactive for years and at times decades before the development of cancer. The infectious agent normally spreads via contact with infected blood from extensive exposure to a contaminated sexual associate or from mother to baby via breast milk. The virus is linked with the human immunodeficiency virus, the basis of acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS). HIV is oncogenic that is associated with numerous kinds of cancer.
This is a bacterium that causes the majority of cases of duodenal and gastric ulcers. The infectious agent may be managed through antibiotics. Individuals having H.pylori are at greater threat of stomach cancers like gastric lymphoma. The bacterium could be spread through contact with feces discovered within contaminated sources of water.
Exposure to oncogenic viruses does not imply an individual will contract cancer. Many persons contact such viruses and never contract cancer. Scientists consider that numerous aspects serve a role in the cancer development and consider that the infectious agents raise the threat just for some persons. Avoiding exposure to the infections may lower the threat of given kinds of cancer. Persons may avoid, HPV virus together with HIV infection and lymphotrophic virus type 1 through the restriction of the number of sexual associates and practice of abstinence or secure sex.1 For the prevention of hepatitis B and C, it is prudent to evade poorly sanitized needles. Meticulous washing of hands can reduce the threat of getting H.pylori infection.
1. Mendelsohn et al. The Molecular Basis of Cancer. Philadelphia: Elsevier Publishers, 2015.