Every now and then

Every now and then, we do hear of several developments which are as a result of
tremendous works by many researchers to make our natural environment a comfortable
habitat for living organisms. These organisms are found being exposed to radiation from
the environment since our natural environment is made up of radiative materials that
emits radiation. Radiations to which these organisms are exposed to may sometimes be
useful as well being hazardous. Radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in
the form of waves or particles through a space or a material medium.
Although there are several types of radiation, this thesis is mostly concerned with
ionized radiation. It is produced by unstable atoms with contains excess energy or mass.
The most commonly known types of ionizing radiation include alpha, beta, gamma, X-
rays and neutron rays. Radioactive materials emits ionizing radiation without having
been subjected to an external influence. The type of radiation emitted and its associated2
energy is characteristic of the kind of radioactive substance. The importance of detecting
and measuring radiation is due to the fact that, certain radiations are very dangerous to
the environment.In this concern, we are only able to assess such a dangerous environment
for people who work within and around by implementing a monitoring system that will
be used to describe the process and activities that characterise the quality of such
an environment. Interestingly, an efficient and robust system can be used to monitor
unaccessible areas for good safety. Some of the usefulness of ionized energy that are
in balance with its hazardousness include diagnosis of diseases, medical and scientific
researches and generation of electricity from nuclear power plants11.
Again, quite a number of incredible preventive measures are considered when
building nuclear facilities but still there is a possibility that an uncertainty may occur
during its operation. It is for this reason that one has to put in place measures that will
enable him/her to manage nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies effectively. One
of the key factors for managing such an emergency is the ability to alert and adequately
asses the need for protective actions making a good use of the relevant information
availabledragusin2014radiation. In this manuscript, an effective design strategy to de-
tect and monitor nuclear radiation at a low cost has been focused on. A Geiger Muller
(GM) counter is the instrument used for measuring and detecting the ionizing energy.