Crowdsourcing- personalized Education Challenges Gul Bano Department of Software Engineering Mehran University of engineering and technology jamshoro

Crowdsourcing- personalized Education Challenges
Gul Bano
Department of Software Engineering Mehran University of engineering and technology jamshoro, Pakistan
Sunbul Khawaja
Department of Software Engineering Mehran University of engineering and technology jamshoro, Pakistan
Abstract:
Online Education is preferred than classroom education by most of the educators, teachers and parents. In this paper we have categorized online education into two subcategories. The personalized and non-personalized education. The personalized education is the learning in a way that each instruction and teaching methodology is customized according to learners’ needs, IQ and level of learning. Additionally, the activities used for personalized online education are relevant and optimized for learners’ interests. In our research we have taken a comparison tests from both kinds of learners (That are personalized and non-personalized educators) while keeping difficulty and creativity levels same for both categories and age levels for both. Kinds of learners are taken
Dr. Qasim Ali
Department of Software Engineering Mehran University of engineering and technology jamshoro, Pakistan
Introduction:
Now a days Technology is growing fast as we use smart technologies for example smart phone, smart homes, smart car, online shopping, online banking, online educations, social media with the help of internet. Now days everything is being personalized we refer personalized education, personalized business, and medical checkups. There are a lot of problems occur while using such technologies one of the major challenge is security when concerned with internet.

Personalized education is preferred by parents, students, and teachers. Many online sites available that provides online courses, taking online examines and generating results. Here comes terminology Crowdsourcing. Crowdsourcing is group of people having same skills or related skills to particular domain. With the help crowdsourcing it saves cost, effort and time. Crowdsourcing can available for different domains but in this paper we are related to educational domain.

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How can crowdsourcing be useful for education? There are a lot of problems faced by students, teachers in personalized education. One of the major challenges are security, peer- checking, making question papers etc. In this paper we propose a methodology to handle these challenges. During recent years’ artificial intelligence towards personalized education is growing faster many automated tools are available for conducting tests checking papers and generating results and providing feedback.

In this paper we will discuss major challenges and provides solution to those challenges.

Related work:
The term crowdsourcing is introduced in 2006 evolving distributed problem-solving model by online workers.

Interest in online education is surging, as dramatized by the success of Khan Academy and recent Stanford online courses, but the technology for online education is in its infancy. Crowdsourcing mechanisms will likely be essential in order to reach the full potential of this medium.
Closer to educational crowdsourcing, is the philanthropic participation or community reward. Participants join the crowd for the reward of participating, the exchange of information. 1
Most of the online courses are limited to multiple question and answers because they are easy to grade.

The Educational Testing Service (ETS) uses natural language processing (NLP) algorithms to augment human assessments of English fluency for essay questions (Monaghan and Bridgeman 2012), but such automated methods require too much investment for most course situations. So how can one teach creative processes (e.g., English composition or user interface design) where criteria change from year to year, evaluation is subjective and feedback is essential? 23
some personalized educational websites such as “Eliademy Academy”, “Khan Academy”,” Course Era Academy” and a lot of others provide video lectures, assignments, projects, essay writing, creativity or open- ended questions, and rea-time discussions.
Crowdsourced applications, such as Stack Overflow, Wikipedia, and Course Era, have emerged as a major problem-solving and data-gathering paradigm for online learning. Those applications offer a number of advantages to their users, for instance, getting a quick answer for programming-related posted question and giving a learner more freedom to participate and provide own opinions. 4
In this paper we compare personalized website and non-personalized website.
Research Methodology:
Most of the online tools are limited to multiple questions or open ended questions. Crowdsourcing in personalized education would enable to analyze the exams based on creativity activities like creativity, essay writing, and real-time discussions etc.
In this paper we will discuss some methodologies to tackle these challenges.

To make peer evaluation more common:
While exchanging the answers between their peers and letting them review the work without disclosing the names of students that would result in use-case Diagrams evolution.

Pre Course Survey for customized tutorials:
Take questioners from students before starting e-learning course. When they provide answers of that questioners the website would analyze the interest of the students and later on it shows the contents based on student’s interest and skip the non-interest contents.

Content Creation & Curation:
Content creation is one of the major challenge in order to set contents according to the student’s interest.

Some of the students leave courses due to in clarification of the contents.

There are different websites available to provide tutorials, lectures videos, discussion, and forum post.

Discussion forums are the first target. Stack Overflow, re-edit and similar sites have developed system that can draw attention to good question and answers. But still problems occurs.

How can source material be revised in order to increase clarification and need for individual questions? Develop recommender system like Wikipedia’s Suggest Box that could route the editing tasks to appropriate volunteers. This approach can work for transcribing lecture and videos in to different languages, adding links to research papers, or rewriting text to make terminology consistent or easy to understand language. Other type of course can be decomposed and should easier to crowd. Alternative examples are improved figures, publish animation, additional problem sets. Applying techniques to allow to professors to get immediate feedback from on an explanation or from real-time test crowd before delivering the published presentation to the class.

System Activities:

Results and Discussions:
The experiment section is divided into two parts in first we compare two websites and provide their graphs and in second part we provide table comparison of two websites.

Eliademy:
Is free online- educational personalized website that allows educators, students, and organization to create, share and manage online course with real-time discussions.

AdamJee is non-personalized educational website. The admin just uploads results, lectures, notes there is real-time discussion and online exams.

The Table: (1) shows the annual exam result of Eli demy academy
TABLE:(1)
Student Marks Assignment Project Total
Abdul 50 10 30 =SUM(LEFT) 90
John 43 10 25 =SUM(LEFT) 78
Asma 58 7 27 =SUM(left) 92
Helen 45 8 28 =SUM(left) 81
Pawan 38 9 20 =SUM(lEft) 67
Jet li 55 5 15 =SUM(left) 75
Maria 60 9 10 =SUM(left) 79
smith 30 7 26 =SUM(lEft) 63
joseph 53 5 27 =SUM(LEFT) 85
sandia 59 6 29 =SUM(LEFT) 94
For experiment purpose we have taken just record of 10 students. The final exam contains 60 Marks and Assignment contains 10 Marks and Project contains 30 Marks. Exam will be taken online and machine also checks paper and make the final results.

Table (2) shows the result of anunnal
Exam result of Admajee academy
Table: (2)
Student Marks Assigment Project Total Score
Ali 30 5 12 48
Fatima 45 8 20 =SUM(LEFT) 73
Asad 30 6 21 =SUM(left) 57
Sana 34 9 13 =SUM(left) 56
Karan 49 9 25 =SUM(left) 83
Paras 39 5 20 =SUM(left) 64
Kelly 20 9 23 =SUM(left) 52
Doe 19 5 21 =SUM(left) 45
Johny 45 4 15 =SUM(left) 64
Iqra 47 7 19 =SUM(left) 73
For Experiment purpose we have taken record of 10 students. In this case exam will be taken by teacher there is no online system just admin upload results on website. Now we will compare these two websites with help of graphs.Graph(1) shows the success of Personalized website and graph(2) shows the success of non-personalized website.

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Graph(1)

Graph(2)
We have taken same subject of both academies. As clearily shown in the graph the reason of success of the both academies . in personalized academy there is fair decision taken because every thing will done by machine and machine never make infair means mechine never does favortisim and will provide results based on student’s abilities. Though students, parents can jugde their level of ablity.

On other hand, non-personalized there might be in fair with students because humman is involve. Teacher may give favortisim to the students and in this cases student can not scale their abiliteis and think that he/she is not intelligant.

In that case personalized websites are more reliable and beneficial.

Crowdsourcing in online Education:
Related to the rapid development of open learning and open access to education. Crowdsourcing helps to provide better solution for online courses. Crowdsourcing is not just limited to the educational platform and it is involved in other platform such as financing, entrepreneurship medical, banking, etc.

There are several subtypes of crowdsourcing but in our research we consider in the context of education, are crowd creation, crowd voting, and crowdfunding and crowd wisdom. Crowd voting techniques can be applied to enhance e-learning.
Crowd Funding has interesting potential applications in educations thus for targeting profit-driven commercial debt distribution. But our focus in this research in on the crowd wisdom and crowd creation. There is several crowdsourcing Applications used as online education support tools. An overview of the examples, illustrative of types are shown in table (3) and are further discussed in the later of section.

Table (3): Crowdsourcing comparison
Application Overview Crowd type challenge
Stack overflow Used to exchange question and answers in the topic of computer programming Wisdom/voting Unsuitable for novice programmer.Democratic only assessment of quality
Wikipedia Wiki-based web
Application that allows people to edit, delete modify contents in collaboration with others. wisdom Scientific assessment to assess credibility of crowd inputs. They are only assessed “democratically”
Course Era An educational and technical organization that offers free online-courses in wide range of topics. No long-term engagement for students. No collegiate support.

“Stack Overflow” is crowdsourcing community application used for educational platform to exchange Question and Answers between programmers on wide range of topics on computer programming. However, it has limitation. For example, it has not novice programmers as they need unique level of detailed feedback.

“Wikipedia” is another example of crowdsourcing platform; however, it is argued that Wikipedia is online crowdsourced education repository. There is no formal application to gain
edit privileges, in fact most of the pages’ edit anonymously, safe for user’s internet protocol (IP). Wikipedia has many advantages. The advantage of Wikipedia’s peer review model is that anyone with access to the internet can edit the work of others or request citation need on the information.
“Couse Era” it is product of organization that offers wide range of free online-courses to teach millions of students. It has partners with top universities (crowd creation) in the world to offer free-courses.

Conclusion:
This paper discussed significant challenges and issues faced by students and organizations. The proposed methodology will help to cover these challenge. We have taken personalized website “Eliademy” and non-personalized website “Damage”. After experiment we analyzed that results of Eliademy website is better than the results of Dame Website. Results that we have generated are based on the Score of Subjects. The highest score of Eliademy was 92 Marks and lowest was 67; on other hand highest score of Dame was 83 Marks and lowest was 45 Marks. We have also analyzed that crowdsourcing plays vital role in educational platform as students post their programs on websites such as “Stack Overflow” and then crowd will answer the questions or queries of the students.

References:
1 Badariah Solomon, Izyana Griffin, Marina Md Din, Rina Md Anwar “A Review of the Uses of Crowdsourcing in Higher Education” International Journal of Asian Social Science, 2013, 3(9):2066-207
2 Yuchaoiang, DanielSchlagwein, Boualem Benatallah, “A Review on Crowdsourcing for Education: State of the Art of Literature and Practice”
3 Michael Anderson, “Crowdsourcing Higher Education: A Design Proposal for Distributed Learning” MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 7, No. 4, December 2011
4 Dhiya Al-Jumpily, Abir Hussain, Mohammed Agamid, Chelsea Dobbins and Jan Lunn “Educational crowdsourcing to support the learning of computer programming”, Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning (2015)